Mast Cell Levels May Explain Sex Differences in Osteoarthritis Pain
Investigators at Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) have discovered that at the time of total knee replacement, women have significantly increased levels of immune cells called mast cells in synovial tissue surrounding the knee joint than men. Their findings, presented today at the annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology, ACR Convergence 2022, may help future research explore why women with knee osteoarthritis report worse pain than men.
Researchers at HSS and other institutions have noted that women with knee osteoarthritis report more pain than men, but the reason for this difference has been unclear. “Others have speculated that women tend to delay surgery more than men, but when we looked in our database, that wasn’t true,” said HSS rheumatologist Dana Orange, MD, MS, assistant professor at The Rockefeller University and senior author of the study. “We studied synovial tissue removed at the time of total knee arthroplasty to look for a biological reason that may explain the difference in reported pain between sexes.”
Synovial tissue lines the knee joint and produces fluid that helps the joint move. It can become inflamed as osteoarthritis progresses. Pathologists at HSS have been generating data on different types of cells found in synovial tissue, including mast cells, which are also found in many other tissues throughout the body and are commonly known for producing inflammatory chemicals called histamines during allergic reactions and asthma. Basic research by other scientists has suggested a link between mast cells and osteoarthritis progression and pain.
Dr. Orange and colleagues, including HSS rheumatologist Bella Mehta, MBBS, MS, lead author of the study, studied joint tissue obtained from 96 women and 61 men who underwent total knee replacement at HSS. They counted the number of cells for more than a dozen cell types typically found in synovial tissue and examined synovial fluid and blood using a high-powered microscope. They also evaluated patient-reported pain outcomes collected with two validated surveys. “At HSS, we were in a unique position to conduct this research because we have synovial tissues collected from patients with end-stage osteoarthritis undergoing arthroplasty and expert musculoskeletal pathologists who systematically grade tissue samples for 13 characteristics,” Dr. Mehta said.
The investigators discovered that synovial tissue from women had significantly more mast cells, 63 per sample area, compared to 46 in tissue from men, on average. They also found higher levels of a byproduct of mast cells called tryptase in synovial tissue from women than men, providing further evidence of increased mast cell activity. No other differences in synovial tissue between sexes were observed. Finally, as expected, women reported worse pain than men on both surveys.
“We hope our findings encourage other researchers to start thinking about biological factors that may contribute to sex differences in patient-reported pain in knee osteoarthritis,” Dr. Orange said.
Authors: Bella Mehta, MBBS, MS, Edward F. Dicarlo, MD, Miguel Otero, PhD, Peter K. Sculco, MD, Mark P. Figgie, MD, Susan M. Goodman, MD (HSS), Fei Wang, PhD (Weill Cornell Medicine), Eun Kyung Song, PhD (Stanford University School of Medicine), Dana Orange, MD, MS (HSS and The Rockefeller University).
HSS is the world’s leading academic medical center focused on musculoskeletal health. At its core is Hospital for Special Surgery, nationally ranked No. 1 in orthopedics (for the 14th consecutive year), No. 2 in rheumatology by U.S. News & World Report (2023-2024), and the best pediatric orthopedic hospital in NY, NJ and CT by U.S. News & World Report “Best Children’s Hospitals” list (2023-2024). In a survey of medical professionals in more than 20 countries by Newsweek, HSS is ranked world #1 in orthopedics for a third consecutive year (2023). Founded in 1863, the Hospital has the lowest readmission rates in the nation for orthopedics, and among the lowest infection and complication rates. HSS was the first in New York State to receive Magnet Recognition for Excellence in Nursing Service from the American Nurses Credentialing Center five consecutive times. An affiliate of Weill Cornell Medical College, HSS has a main campus in New York City and facilities in New Jersey, Connecticut and in the Long Island and Westchester County regions of New York State, as well as in Florida. In addition to patient care, HSS leads the field in research, innovation and education. The HSS Research Institute comprises 20 laboratories and 300 staff members focused on leading the advancement of musculoskeletal health through prevention of degeneration, tissue repair and tissue regeneration. In addition, more than 200 HSS clinical investigators are working to improve patient outcomes through better ways to prevent, diagnosis, and treat orthopedic, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. The HSS Innovation Institute works to realize the potential of new drugs, therapeutics and devices. The HSS Education Institute is a trusted leader in advancing musculoskeletal knowledge and research for physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, academic trainees, and consumers in more than 165 countries. The institution is collaborating with medical centers and other organizations to advance the quality and value of musculoskeletal care and to make world-class HSS care more widely accessible nationally and internationally. www.hss.edu.